Find the Russian equivalents for the following English terms
Ингибитор коррозии, монтажник металлоконструкций, непрерывная работа, окончательное размещение основного кабеля, перекладина, проволочная сетка, сквозная балка жёсткости
15.4Complete and translate the sentences using the following words
As compared to, baffle, bridge component, engineering achievements, fatigue, motorway bridge, mounts, planned length, rapid growth, stable, steel cable, strand, swampy, torsional stiffness, vehicle.
1. The first period of the bridge building golden age comes back to the 19th century when the (быстрое развитие) of the railroads required a large number of huge metal structures to cross the large bodies of water all over the world. The Forth Rail Bridge over the Firth of Forth in Scotland is one of these structures.
2. The second flourishing period in bridge construction referred to the middle of the 20th century due to rapid advancing of new building materials and technologies. Many suspension bridges including the Golden Gate Bridge and Oakland Bay Bridge in San Francisco became national landmarks demonstrating (технические достижения).
3. The next era in bridge engineering offered the cable-stayed bridge because it appeared to be more (устойчивый) in the wind. Besides, suspension bridges were rather costly to construct because steel was in short supply.
4. The cable-stayed bridges were far less costly (по сравнению) suspension structures, and could span very long distances. The Normandy Bridge in Northern France, one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the period from 1988 to 1995, has 184 cable stays attached to the towers of 214 metres in height.
5. Modern suspension bridges usually employ (металлические кабели). Individual (пряди) form strong main cables that support the weight of the bridge’s deck. Suspension bridges, supporting the weight of (транспортные средства), are more suitable for (автодорожные мосты).
6. The anchorages of a suspension bridge are often massive constructions because they have to withstand the tension of the four cable-ends. The anchorage of a suspension bridge can present a fearsome problem if the structure is built either on (болотистый) or on soft ground including a deposit of clay, silt, sand, and gravel.
7. Once the suspension bridge is built, the cables have their (проектная длина), and the girder follows a prescribed gradient. To provide these requirements and ensure long-term safety, bridge engineers employ computer simulations and wind tunnels for testing (элементы моста) and preventing failure under operation.
8. As the structure of a suspension bridge is rather flexible, some structures have inclined hangers to increase the deck stability as in case of the Severn Bridge. The hangers are arranged in a zigzag fashion, and their adjacent (крепление) are closely spaced. The aerodynamic stability and (торсионная жесткость) of the Severn Bridge is also achieved by its box-section superstructure.
9. There are bridges that combineconventional suspension cableswith cable-stays as in case of great Brooklyn Bridge in the USA andthe Albert Bridge in London. To resist aerodynamic forces,transportation engineershave developed stays even below the deck or used high (обтекатель, аэродинамическое сечение) on each side of the streamlined deck to deflect the wind.
10. The effects of wind produce a periodic torsion, and suspension bridges have to resist the possible effects of (усталость при кручении). Engineers pay great attention to the asymmetrical live load because a daily flow of traffic across a bridge is unequally distributed on the sides of the bridge deck. In large cities, more vehicles usually move on one side in the morning and on the opposite side in the evening.
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