Complete and translate the following sentences. 1. (Крепление) by bolts or rivets is widely used in bridge building
1. (Крепление) by bolts or rivets is widely used in bridge building. (Установка заклепок) is rather labour consuming and a dangerous operation due to heating up rivets to a (красный металл) temperature. The ironworkers hold the rivets and simultaneously flatten them using a special (молоток). This manually operated job is rather harmful to human health.
2. Welding is a technique used for joining metallic (детали) by heat. Welders perform (сварка элементов) of steel spans by special (автоматическая сварка) or by the (ручная сварка) in situ. During the welding process, steel is heated and this can result in the degradation of the adjacent metal structure.
3. (Стальные фермы) made by standard design are widely used for spans from 33 up to 132 m long (fig. 8.4). Panel length in Russia is 5.5 m or 11 m; therefore truss spacing is 11-33-44-55-66 m, etc. It is very suitable for bridge (проектирование, ремонт и реконструкция).
|a - Reconstruction with removal of trusses (1998 – 1999)||b - Road-cum-rail Bridge across the River Amur with Trestle Approach (2000)|
Figure 8.4 Bridge across the River Amur in Khabarovsk
4. The truss is a structural component made out of straight metal pieces to form a series of (треугольник) lying in a single plane. No stress can distort a triangle shape structure. The truss gives a stable form capable of supporting considerable (внешняя нагрузка) over a large span. The connected pieces forming the top and the bottom of the truss are called the top and bottom (пояс фермы) respectively. The diagonal and vertical braces connecting the top and bottom chords are the web of the truss.
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