The kidneys are dark-red, bean-shaped organs. One side of the kidney buiges outward (convex) ana the other side is indented (concave). There is a cavity attached to the indented side of the kidney, called the renal peivis, which extends into the ureter.
Each kidney is enclosed in a transparent membrane called the renal capsule, which helps to protect them against infections and trauma. The kidney is divided into two main areas: a light outer area called the renal cortex, and a darker inner area called the renal medulla. Within the medulla there arc 8 or more cone-shaped sections known asrenal pyramids. The areas between the pyramids are called renal columns.
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