SEMANTIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LANGUAGES
Languages differ not only in their phonological and grammatical systems. Their systems of meaning are also different. As J. С Catford puts it, "Meanings, in our view, is a property of a language. An S.L. (Source Language) text has an S.L. MEANING, and a T.L. (Target Language) text has a T.L. meaning". (J.C. Catford A Linguistic Theory of Translation, L.-1965* p.35) Hence it follows that semantic structures of correlated words of the Source Language and the Target Language cannot be co-extensive, can never "cover each other". A careful analysis invariably shows that semantic relationship between correlated words, especially polysemantic words, is very complex.
Therefore it seems to be necessary first to consider here the three types of lexical meaning which can be distinguished and are to be rendered in translation: referential, emotive and stylistic.
Referential meaning (also called logical, denotative) has direct reference to things or phenomena of objective reality, naming abstract notions and processes as well. It is also necessary to distinguish between primary and secondary referential meaning.
Emotive meaning, unlike referential meaning, has reference not directly to things or phenomena of objective reality but to the feelings and emotions, associated with them. It is a connotative meaning created by connotations raised in the mind of the speaker and reader; it is inherent in a definite group of words even when they are taken out of context.
Stylistic meaning is based on stylistic stratification of the English vocabulary and is formed by stylistic connotations. Stylistic and emotive meanings are closely connected. As a rule, stylistically coloured words, i.e., words belonging to certain stylistic strata, except the neutral, possess a considerable element of emotive meaning. The slang-words "mug", "phiz" are undoubtedly more expressive than their neutral counterpart "face" and have a pejorative emotive meaning. In addition to the emotive and stylistic meanings, proper to the word as a linguistic unit, some emotive connotations may be acquired in the context. Both are to be rendered in translation.
1. Referential Meaning and Its Rendering in Translation
Causes of lexical transformations in the rendering of referential meaning
1. Different vision of objects of reality and different usage;
2. Different semantic structure of a word in the source language and the target-language;
3. Different valency or collocabilitv.
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