C) Sentence elements

This is sometimes referred to as syntactic restructurings of the sentence in the process of translation. It consists in changing the syntactic functions of words in a sentence, a process which is usually due to the same tendency as is observed in transpositions, viz., preserving the functional sentence perspective. In English, as in Russian, the "theme" is generally (with some exceptions) placed at the beginning of the sentence; however, this place is, of course, reserved for the sentence subject. As a result the "theme" of the English sentence is, as a rule, also its subject, though semantically it is not always the doer of the action expressed by the predicate verb: it may be its object ("goal") or even denote some adverbial relation such as time, place, cause etc. In Russian the word order is relatively free, therefore the first word or word group within a sentence (its "theme") must not necessarily be at the same time its syntactic subject. Hence the subject of the English sentence is often replaced in Russian by a corresponding secondary element, such as object, adverbial of time, place, cause, etc., with concomitant changes in the syntactic pattern of the whole sentence, often also with necessary lexical changes. See the following examples:

He was met by his sister - Его встретила сестра.

He was given money - Ему дали денег.

The new film is much spoken about - О новом фильме много говорят, (and other passive-active transformation; see above)

Last week saw the 500-strong meeting of shop stewards and trade-union officials... (Morning Star,11 .III.75) - На прошлой неделе состоялось собрание цеховых старост и профсоюзных деятелей, в котором приняло участие 500 человек.

The tent sleeps six people - В палатке могут спать шесть человек.

Rhodesia has hanged five African guerillas - В Родезии были казнены пять африканских партизан.

New terrorists attacks have injured six persons - В результате новых нападений террористов шесть человек было ранено.

The fog stopped the traffic - Из-за тумана движение транспорта было остановлено.

Figure 2 gives a summary of the results of such experiments - На рис. 2 показаны сводные результаты этих экспериментов.

It is self-evident that during translation from Russian into English the process is reversed; cf.: s.

В комнате установилась тишина - The room turned silent, В радиотехнических устройствах часто встречаются системы из электрических проводов - Radio equipment often includes systems of electronic wires....








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