Translation of terms

Terms are generally associated with a definite branch of science. They are characterised by a tendency to be monosemantic in a given branch of science and technology and therefore easily call forth the required concept: calorie - калория, equator - экватор, polysemantic - многозначный, etc. But it should be taken into consideration that one and the same term may have different meaning in different branches of science, e.g. line 1) конвейер, поточная линия 2) трубопровод. In some cases the recent terminological explosion has produced polysemy even within the same branch (e.g. поджигающий электрод - in electronics may be keep-alive electrode or trigger electrode).

There is another group of words of terminological nature: names of animals, birds, etc, e.g. tiger-тигр, cat-кошка, swallow-ласточка. These words may acquire a figurative meaning in the source - language which has no equivalent in the target-language, e.g. tiger had a transferred meaning (now rare) "smart-liveried small boy as groom" (Concise Oxford Dictionary) - маленький жокей, мальчик-жокей.

Names of plants also belong to this group: oak - дуб, lily-of-the-valley - ландыш, as well as names of natural elements, names of the days of the week, of months and numerals: oxygen - кислород, Thursday - четверг, July - июль, thousand - тысяча, million -миллион.

Despecialization of terms in news media may occasionally pose a translation problem (the launching pad for his career-трамплин для его карьеры).

7. TRANSLATION OF POLYSEMANTIC, PSEUDO-INTERNATIONAL WORDS AND "NON-EQUIVALENTS"








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