Translation of Pseudo-International Words
There is a distinct group of words, which constitute a special difficulty for the translator, the so-called pseudo-international words. As distinct from genuine international words which have a more or less similar phonetic form and carry the same meaning (electronics -электроника, cybernetics - кибернетика, algebra - алгебра, the pseudo-international words differ in meaning from language to language either completely, e.g. commutator- коллектор, complexion - цвет лица, or partially elevator- 1) элеватор, 2) лифт.
They are known as the translator's "false friends". Although they are warned against them, translators are often deceived by formal resemblance into making errors. Here are some examples of such words and their equivalents in Russian: There were attempts to sabotage key services in Santiago (the Economist, 1974) - Делались попытки вывести из строя основные объекты коммунального обслуживания в Сантьяго.
We are told that BBC television this autumn will give a massive coverage to the general election (Morning Star, 1968) - Сообщили, что нынешней осенью передачи Би-Би-Си по телевидению будут широко освещать парламентские выборы.
The Russian word «прогресс» is monosemantic and has positive connotations. The meaning of the English "progress" is neutral and can apply to any movement as can be seen from the title of Hogarth' picture "Rake's Progress" - «Жизнь повесы», or from the following examples: Her progress about London during that first week was one thrilling adventure (H. Walpole) Её знакомство с Лондоном в ту первую неделю было сплошным увлекательным приключением.
Sometimes the meaning of international words is identical in English and in Russian but the collocation pattern is different which prevents the use of the Russian word in translation.
Never before in the history of the world have there been so many persons engaged in the translation of both secular and religious materials (E. Nida and Ch. Taber, The Theory and Practice of Translation).
Although the meanings of the words "religious" - религиозный and" materials" - материалы are identical, the collocation «религиозные материалы» is quite impossible in Russian. An adequate translation would be: Ещё никогда в истории человечества столько людей не занималось переводом как светской, так и духовной литературы.
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