Find the Russian equivalents for the following English terms and word combinations
Access road, bold project, commissioning, domestic bridge building, expansion joint, expressway lane, fine-dispersed material, flexible tie-bars, flux covered wire, galvanized wire, heat insulating material, high-altitude crossing, ice accretion, locals, secure on site, through arch truss, unobstructed passage, wind bracing.
25.3 Find the English equivalents for each of the Russian terms from the text
Бесперебойное движение поездов, загрязнение воды, Конструкторско-технологический институт вычислительной техники, барьерный экран из труб, насущная необходимость, отечественные технологии, перепад температур, подошва тоннеля, поперечные связи, пресная вода, приток реки, сила землетрясения, сквозная арочная ферма, судоходная часть реки, технологический перерыв (“окно»).
25.4 Complete the sentences using the following words and translate them into Russian
Angle, congestion, construction manager, damper, double-deck tunnel, economic might, exhausted capacity, feasibility study, highlands, impetus, multitransit tunnel, promising new technologies, petroleum wax, railhead, refresher courses, structural engineer, technologically feasible, transport hub
1. Russian bridge engineering achieves success due to AMOST Foundation that actually is Russian non-profit research and engineering association. It unites top leaders of construction industry including all major building companies, research and development institutes, higher educational institutions and various bodies and agencies engaged in bridge maintenance in Russia and neighbouring countries. The Foundation works in close cooperation with experts and partners to develop and implement (передовые технологии), materials and equipment, issues periodicals, organizes conferences and exhibitions, offers computer-based training and (курсы повышения квалификации).
2. Gvernments always use big bridges as a showing of their (экономическая мощь). The Russky Bridge with its central span of 1,104 m established a new record. “This magnificent cable stayed bridge was built by the teamwork of excellent professionals,” said Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev at the bridge inauguration. One of the students from our University, Guselnikov Maxim, worked in one of the best construction teams (fig.25.3a), and Mr. Medvedev shook hands with him (fig.25.3c).
|a - Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev and a bridge builder Maxim Guselnikov||b - The cable-stayed Russky Bridge to the island of Russian in Vladivostok|
|c - Mr Medvedev shaking hands with Maxim Guselnikov|
Figure 25.3 The Russky Bridge Inauguration on July 2, 2012
The Russian government and Freyssinet chief executive Jerome Stubler are very proud of this bridge. Freyssinet (руководитель строительных работ) Damien Delbos stressed that both building teams shared the same technical culture that made their mutual work very simple. Heads of government who participated in the APEC summit crossed the bridge.
3. The classical design of the Russky Bridge is a cable-stayed structure. Its two standard reinforced concrete towers of 321 m high carry 168 cable stays that is the biggest concentration in the world. The cables are up to 580 m long, and the number of strands in each cable depends on its hanging (угол) increasing with every degree from the vertical. The longest cables hang at the farthest distance and have 79 strands of 15.7mm diameter. (Нефтяной парафин) individually covers with a film each of seven galvanized steel wires within each strand. A high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheath encases each strand. Patented Freyssninet compact cable stays can reduce wind forces because they contain nearly 20% more strands compared to conventional sheaths of the same diameter. Thus, the fewer number of cables reduces the wind forces, and can carry the same vertical load. To provide aerodynamic stability of the long bridge span the builders placed (гаситель колебаний) where each ultra-compact stay cable meets the deck.
4. The 2014 Winter Olympic Games gave powerful (толчок) to rail improvements at the coastline between the Black Sea and the Caucasus Mountains. Russian Railways (RZD) accepted the challenge of that enormous project that included three tunnel complexes where parallel railway and motorway tunnels share the same service tunnel. A new excellent railway also comprises bridges and retaining walls. The builders constructed the engineering structures under the difficult geological and topographical conditions of (высокогорная местность) with many areas of high landslide risks and unstable seismic environment. To reduce the impact from vehicles running on bridges, the riverbeds and floodplains were provided with restoration. Thousands of salmon yearlings were sent into the rivers. Thousands of rare plants and dozens of animal crossings were restored.
5. Russia presented a plan to build a tunnel between Siberia and Alaska under the Bering Strait for implementing the dream of an undersea rail connection linking North America with Eurasia. The Russian government studies how to bridge the 93 kilometers of icy water at the closest point between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. “The crossing will be built by all means. Have no doubts about that," said Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. The total length of the link could be twice that of the Channel Tunnel, and would cost about $12 billion. The greatest railway project in history is (технически выполнимый). It will be financed with state funds in Russia, and will have been managed by the joint stock company Russian Railways by the year 2030. The (многофункциональный тоннель) could carry not only a railway and a motorway, but also oil and gas pipelines as well as fiber optic wire.
6. Creating this strategic transportation corridor will require nearly 3,900 km of railways including bridges and tunnels through Russia’s undeveloped northeastern regions. The existing Baikal-Amur railway will reach the Bering Strait. The tunnel could be built from both sides, from Cape Dezhnev in Siberia and Cape Prince of Wales in Alaska. The tunnel would surface twice in the middle of the strait on Russian and American Diomede Islands, but the nearest (конечный пункт железной дороги) on both banks would be rather far from it. To complete the Russian tracks from Yakutsk and American network from Fort Mason in British Columbia, the project would require about 6,000 km of railway with bridges and tunnels. Russian and foreign manufacturers, suppliers and building companies would offer various top-level innovative technologies, machines and equipment.
7. Transport communications in St Petersburg are clogged by (исчерпавшая себя пропускная способность) of existing bridges over the Neva River. Moreover, during the long navigation period from April until November, the traffic of ships via the Volga-Baltic Waterway increases considerably, and communication between the northern and the southern parts of the city stops as the bridges are open for longer periods. The Orlovsky Highway Tunnel in the center of the city under the Neva could relieve (затор уличного движения), and provide a permanent link along the busiest traffic line at both banks. The increasing transport demand proves the need for the tunnel with the capacity of 60,000 vehicles per day in both directions.
8. According to the project (технико-экономическое обоснование), the tunnel will be bored by the giant TBM with the diameter of 19.25m that was ordered to Germany’s Herrenknecht AG. The length of the tunnel is nearly 3.5 km with the 942m under-river section. The (двухъярусный тоннель) with three traffic lanes each in both directions will divert traffic flows from central bridges, and provide a twenty-four hour link from the city centre to the loop road and federal highways M10 “Skandinaviya” to the Finland border and M18 “Kola” to Murmansk. 9. President V. Putin said: "This is a necessary and ambitious project, but it will cost big money, about $2 billion." The payback period may be extended to 26 years, and the tunnel will be operated as a toll facility. The proposed tunnel would promote St Petersburg as an international (узловой транспортный центр) of particular significance.
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