UNIT 4. MICROELECTRONICS AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN FOOD INDUSTRY
a) Read and memorize the words:
|to resort||прибегать ( к чему-л. ), обращаться за помощью ( to )|
|labour-intensive||интенсивный ( труд )|
|to meet||отвечать (требованиям)|
|sophisticated||сложный, замысловатый; усовершенствованный ( о приборе, машине, системе и т. п. )|
|ladder||лестница ( приставная, веревочная )|
|application||применение, использование, употребление|
|to evolve||развиваться ( from, out of; into )|
b) Read the words and guess the meaning without a dictionary:
globally, spheres, materials, handling, processing, production, packaging, marketing, upgrading, microelectronic, technology, logic, sensor, computer, industrial, computerization, instrumentation, automation, control, system, monitor, activities, information, operator, ingredient, complex, combination, garniture, to result in, hygiene, to economize
Exercise 2. Read and translate the text:
1. Faced with increasing competition domestically and globally, and being placed under growing pressure from demanding consumers as well as retailers, FD manufacturers have no choice but to become more competitive simply in order to survive. They are forced to resort to cost-cutting measures in all spheres of their operations, including materials handling, processing, production, packaging, marketing and distribution. Although the FD industries used to be relatively labour-intensive, they have become increasingly capital-intensive by adopting modern microelectronic technology. Today, large- and medium-scale companies are constantly upgrading their plant and equipment in an effort to improve their productivity. FD producers must improve their products or develop new ones to meet consumers’ demands.
2. Many tasks in food production and packaging involve repetitive work that can be easily performed by modern robots, but for many small and medium-sized enterprises the scale of operations does not permit them to adopt sophisticated and costly technology. In 1980s, as PLCs (programmable logic controllers) became less expensive, the FD industries began introducing them into their processing and production operations. PLCs using ladder logic and sensors are the computers employed in process control applications in a high-speed, real-time industrial environment.
3. Today, the level of technology is evolving rapidly to a higher stage of automation. Computerization, instrumentation and automation are commonplace in the FD industries from material reception, storage, processing, packaging, warehousing and distribution. In the processing stage, for example, the process control systems that monitor activities and provide information to operators and controllers are crucial to efficiency and quality. They may economize on and enhance the use of raw material and ingredients. Computer-based control systems are used for many areas and tasks. Computer-aided design (CAD), allows equipment producers to adapt standard machinery to meet individual food processors’ requirements and to develop integrated systems. Computer-aided manufacture (CAM), on the other hand, gives equipment the flexibility to handle different ingredients and meet individual producers’ specifications. Integrated CAM systems had long been applied to relatively simple processes, such as sugar refining, grain milling, fruit and vegetable canning. The systems are being used today for the production of more complex products such as confectionary, ice-cream, snack foods and others. In the case of ready meals, final products can easily be assembled, packaged, frozen and stored. It should be noted, that when the pick-and-place and depositing technology now being developed is perfected, ready meals with different combinations of garniture will have a more attractive, home-cooked appearance. Automated warehouses with palette systems, high shelf stacks and stock control systems are increasingly being installed.
4. An increased level of computerization and automation brings quality control, processing and production into line with international standards, resulting in higher speed production, larger batches, more varied products, cost reduction and improvements in hygiene.
Exercise 3. Write down the titles which in your opinion suit the best to each passage of the text.
Exercise 4. Here are the answers. Ask questions:
1. Today, the level of technology is evolving rapidly to a higher stage of automation.
2. They may economize on and enhance the use of raw material and ingredients.
3. FD producers must improve their products or develop new ones to meet consumers’ demands.
4. The systems are being used today for the production of more complex products such as confectionary, ice-cream, snack foods and others.
5. Computer-aided design (CAD), allows equipment producers to adapt standard machinery to meet individual food processors’ requirements and to develop integrated systems.
Exercise 5. Express the main ideas of this text in some sentences.
Exercise 2. Read and translate the text:
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