Taxation. Налогообложение

Funds are withdrawn from the circular flow in the form of taxation by the government. It levies two types of tax:

· Direct taxes, such as income tax, corporation tax (on profits) and other taxes on income or wealth;

· Indirect taxes, such as VAT and customs and excise duties, which are levied on spending by all of us;

If the authorities withdraw funds through taxation and then fail to spend this tax revenue, the circular flow will reduce the levelof activity in the economy.

Taxation policy has been substantially altered by the Conservative government in the 1980s and early 1990s. It has reduced direct taxes because of the belief that taxation of this kind reduces the incentive to work and so dampens the spirit of enterprise in the economy. Indirect taxes, such as VAT, have been increased to make up for some of the revenue lost from direct taxes. The government has thus transferred the tax burden from direct to indirect taxes. The total burden of taxation has hardly altered.

INFLATION

Inflation is generally defined as a persistent rise in the general price level with no corresponding rise in output, which leads to a corresponding fall in the purchasing power of money.

In this section we shall look briefly at the problems that inflation causes for business and consider whether there are any potential benefits for an enterprise from an inflationary period.

Inflation varies considerably in its extent and severity. Hence, the consequences for the business community differ according to circumstances. Mild inflation of a few per cent each year may pose few difficulties for business. However, hyperinflation, which entails enormously high rates of inflation, can create almost insurmountable problems for the government, business, consumers and workers. In post-war Hungary, the cost of living was published each day and workers were paid daily so as to avoid the value of their earnings falling. Businesses would have experienced great difficulty in costing and pricing their production while the incentive for people to save would have been removed.

Economists argue at length about the causes of, and "cures" for, inflation. They would, however, recognize that two general types of inflation exist:

* Demand-pull inflation

* Cost-push inflation








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