Having read the text, complete the information with details you may notice in the pictures
Novosibirsk is one of the largest cities in Russia. Its development in the 21st century relies on its ideal geographical location at the crossing of basic transportation routes – railways, airlines, waterways and motorways. It sprang from the intersection of these routes and became an important transport centre for local, domestic and foreign transportation of goods from Siberia, the Far East, the Kuzbass region, the Altai Region, Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, Japan and the rest of the world. The role of the railway network is of paramount importance as it gave rise to the business activities of many regions. The Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest in Russia, stretching from Moscow 9,198 km east to Vladivostok. It has great importance in the economy of our country, and crossing many unique bridges, it carries 9.5 million tons of cargo each year.
|a – the Rail Bridge across the Ob River (1897)||b – the Original Truss of the Rail Bridge (1897) in the “City Dawn” Park|
Figure 11.1 The Rail Bridge that gave the birth to the city of Novosibirsk
At the end of the 19th century, the builders of the Trans-Siberian Railway had to bridge the mighty rivers of Siberia. The surveying party headed up by N. Garin-Mikhailovsky chose the most suitable place for crossing the Ob River. Professor N. Belelyubsky conducted the planning of the first huge railway bridge across that water obstacle. The builders laid the first stone to the bridge foundation on 20 July in 1893, and the residents of Novosibirsk consider this date to be the birthday of their city. The railway crossing was open to traffic in 1897 (fig. 11.1a; 11.3a; 11.4). During the years of the bridge construction, the village of Krivoshchekovo on the left riverbank gave rise to a settlement that, later, developed into the largest city in Siberia, in the very centre of Russia.
|a – the Railway Bridge by N. Beleljubsky after Reconstruction in 1981|
|b - the Komsomolsky Railway Bridge (1935)||c- the Oktyabrsky Bridge and the Metro Bridge|
|d – the dam||e – the Bugrinsky Bridge (design model)|
Figure 11.2 Bridges in the City of Novosibirsk
Nearly a century the bridge provided a safe passage for heavy trains, but the bearing capacity of its elements and the state of the riveted joints could not resist modern live loads. The deterioration of bearings called for reconstruction, which began in 1981.
Figure 11.3 the Novosibirsk Bridges
a - The Earliest Railway Bridge (1896); b – The Railway Bridge (1935);
c – The Oktyabrsky Bridge (1956); d – The Dimitrovsky Bridge (1978);
e - The Metro Bridge (1985)
1. Beam-cantilever Trusses (балочно-консольные фермы);
2. Suspended Trusses (подвесные фермы); 3. Bearings (опорные части);
4. Piers (опоры 1896); 5. Superstructure (пролётное строение 1896);
6. Superstructure (пролётное строение 1981); 7. Slender Arch (Гибкая арка);
8. Braced Girder (жёсткая балка); 9. Reinforced Concrete Slab (железобетонная плита);
10. Steel Girder (металлическая балка);
11. Composite Superstructure (сталежелезобетонное пролётное строение)
The renewed railway bridge is a multi-span superstructure with a cantilever-beam metal truss (fig. 11.2 a; 11.3a; 11.4). The suspended span is 87 m long and rests on the cantilevers of the adjacent trusses. The main advantage of a cantilever-beam truss is that each pier has one bearing. It reduces pier proportions at the bridge facade. The headroom provides 118 m of navigable waterway. New metal trusses rest on piers with concrete encasement. Concrete also encases the starlings. The planners redesigned the old spans, and Belelyubsky’s bridge entered their next cycle of its service life (fig. 11.2a; 11.4).
The next railway bridge across the Ob River appeared in 1935. Young enthusiastic people built it within a short period, and called the structure the Komsomolsky Bridge. It has a metal riveted truss with a top flange of polygonal shape (fig. 11.2 b; 11.3b; 11.4).
Insecurity in transport communication held back the economy growth in the rapidly developing city. A floating bridge in summer and an ice passage in winter were the only communication links between the right and left riverbanks until 1956. Further industrial growth was encouraged due to the Oktyabrsky Bridge (fig. 11.2c; 11.3c; 11.4), which solved the traffic problem.
Figure 11.4 Plan of Novosibirsk Bridges
1 – the Ob River; 2 – the Inya River; 3 – the Railway Bridge 1896; 4 – the Railway Bridge 1935; 5 – the Dam of Water Power Station; 6 – the Oktyabsky Bridge 1956; 7 – the Dimitrovsky Bridge; 8 – the Metro Bridge; 9 – Novosibirsk-Glavny Railway Station; 10 – Karl Marx Avenue; 11 – Dimitrov Avenue; 12 – the Metro Line; 13 – the Bugrinsky Bridge
The first town bridge in Novosibirsk is one of the finest bridgeworks in our country. The bridge spans combining strong metal girders and low angle arches gracefully complement the magnificent city view. The bridge spandrel looks especially attractive. The deck is made of reinforced concrete slabs allowing much easier asphalt spreading on a roadway. The piers resisting the weight of the arches might look rather ponderous but due to the nice granite encasement, they decorate the bridge.
Novosibirsk is a rapidly developing city because it stretches out at the most important overland transport cross routes. The Main Federal Motorway carries heavy traffic through our city that causes great inconvenience in the streets. The problem of traffic congestion, noise and air pollution made the authorities build a bypass road for freight transportation at the northern border of the city. Again, the Ob River became a natural obstacle to the new road, and a reinforced concrete bridge was badly in need. The Prime Minister of The Russian Federation opened the bypass to traffic on October 22 in 2010 (fig. 11.4).
Senior government and RZD COMPANY officials, as well as the Transport Minister, other high-ranking persons, and the General Manager of the West-Siberian Railway Branch accompanied Mr. Putin. Having examined the new bridge, they came to the Siberian State University of Railway Engineering and discussed the plans for transportation development. The Prime Minister signed “The Strategy of Transport Development up to 2030”. This document provides many solutions for our transport problems.
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