X. Перепишите и переведите текст. For the first time the idea of building the underground railway in Moscow was discussed before the revolution
For the first time the idea of building the underground railway in Moscow was discussed before the revolution. But the construction of the first section (from Sokolniki to Central Park) was initiated only in 1932, and lasted 3 years. It was called the record period of time by the world press. The Russian engineers carefully studied the existing underground systems abroad before working out their own project, which represents a significant improvement on the London system.
The engineering difficulties were great mainly because much of the soil was composed of running sand*. Fortunately most of the running sand lay close to the surface and it was found possible to use out-and-cover method** of construction under many of the streets. But in the center of the city where the line is 100 ft or more deep, the construction of tunnels was necessary.
The Moscow Underground consists of a circle line, which runs round the city center, several radial lines crossing the city and connecting with each other and the lines running to the countryside. Some constructional work is still going on. Now the length of the underground lines reaches about 300 km.
At present the Moscow Metro handles more than 5 million passengers each day. During peak hours trains run at a speed of 90 km per hour with the intervals of about 80 seconds. One train takes up to 1,500 passengers. For greater safety of travel all trains are inspected every 6-9 hours of running. Being in operation for about 13 hours daily each metro train covers the distance equal to that from Moscow to St. Petersburg. The trains servicing the Underground are supplied with low voltage direct current. The current is obtained from the third rail by special devices that are mounted beneath the motor coaches. Rolling stock is completely replaced approximately once every four years.
The Moscow Metro can compete with the underground railways in any of the European capitals in level of automation. At present experiments are being conducted with an “automatic driver”, i.e. with computer-controlled trains. The computer devices will help to relieve the nervous strain on the drivers and make it possible to increase the cruising speed*** of trains even more. These automatic devices have already been tested over the Circle Route by way of experiment.
Notes: *running sand – сыпучий песок, плывун
**cut-and-cover method – открытый метод (строительства)
***cruising speed – эксплуатационная скорость
XI. Ответьте на общие вопросы в соответствии с содержанием текста.
1. Was the possibility of constructing Metro in Moscow discussed before the revolution for the first time?
2. Did the building of the Moscow Underground begin in 1917?
3. Does the project of the Moscow Metro represent a significant improvement on the London system?
4. Were all lines constructed, using out-and-cover method?
5. Does the Moscow Metro consist of a circle line and 2 radial ones?
6. Is the construction of the Metro still going on?
7. Do Metro trains run with the intervals of about 8 minutes during peak hours?
8. Are all trains inspected for greater safety of travel every week?
9. Can the Moscow Metro compete with the underground lines of other countries in level of automation?
10. Will an “automatic driver” replace hard man’s labor in future?
I. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future) и группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future) в действительном и страдательном залогах. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.
1. Hurry up! I’m afraid by the time we get to the station the train will have already left. 2. The new American turbo-train has covered a 230-mile distance in 3 hours 15 minutes with 4 stops between Boston and New York. 3. By the time the train reached its destination Paul had made friends with many of his fellow-travelers. 4. For many years railway track has been laid and repaired by hard manual labor. Now this work is being done by means of up-to-date track machines and mechanisms.
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