Influence of harmful pollutions on an environment. Control of condition of an atmosphere, a hydrosphere and a ground. Ways of reduction and liquidation of harmful emissions.
Ecological pollution is an adverse change of environment, which entirely or in part is the result of activity of the person, directly or indirectly changes the distribution of coming energy, levels of radiation, physical and chemical properties of an environment and the conditions of existence of living organisms.
These changes can influence on the person directly or through water and food. They also can influence on the person, worsening properties of things used by him, conditions of rest and work.
The first place among sources of environmental pollution take mineral hydrocarbons (coal, oil, gas) as at their combustion is formed a plenty of waste products.
Polluting an atmosphere substances on their influence on an organism of the person are subdivided on physical and chemical. Tophysical concern:
- radioactive elements being a source of radiation;
- thermal pollution (rise in temperature);
- noise and low-frequency vibrations (infrasound).
- Gaseous derivatives of carbon and liquid hydrocarbons;
- Synthetic detergents;
- Pesticides and other synthetic materials;
- Derivatives of sulfur;
- Derivatives of nitrogen;
- Heavy metals;
- Compounds of fluorine;
- Firm impurities;
- Organic substances.
On conditions of formation all substances polluting an atmosphere are divided on impuritiesof a natural and artificial (anthropogenous) origin.
Impurities of natural origin get in an atmosphere as a result of volcanic activity, aeration of ground and rocks, forest fires, dying of plants, excitements of the sea (accompanying with formation of spray), combustion of meteorites.
Impurities of anthropogenous origin are formed first of all during burning of mineral fuel (in engines of internal combustion, on thermal power stations, in heating systems), and also at burning of industrial and household waste products, nuclear explosions, etc.
|Substance||Natural impurities||Anthropogenous emissions|
|Carbon oxide CO||-||3,5 · 108|
|Sulfur dioxide SO2||1,4 · 108||1,45 · 108|
|Oxides of nitrogen||1,4 · 109||(1,5-2,0) · 107|
|Aerosol (firm particles)||(7,7-22) · 1010||(9,6-26,0) · 1010|
|Polychlorinevinyl substances, freons||-||2,0 · 106|
|Ozone||2,0 · 109|
|Hydrocarbons||1,0 · 109||1,0 · 106|
|Lead Pb||-||2,0 · 105|
|Mercury Hg||-||5,0 · 103|
On structure the impurities, getting in an atmosphere, are subdivided on gaseous, liquid and firm. Thus gaseous substances (carbon oxide, sulfur dioxide and other derivatives of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, organic compounds, hydrocarbons) make up about 90 %, on a part of firm substances (a dust, heavy metals, mineral and organic compounds, radioactive substances) - about 10 %; the mass of liquid impurities (a sulfuric acid) is small in comparison with mass of gaseous and firm.
At burning of all kinds of fuel water steam and carbon dioxide are formed and get in an atmosphere, these gases are contained in an atmosphere in natural conditions and do not render of harmful action on people. For this reason the given gases do not concern to substances polluting an atmosphere, though their share is the most part of all emissions of anthropogenous origin.
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