Computer tomography

We recommend the patients not to wait critical development of disease and aggravating of the state of health, and at once to see a doctor at next symptoms:

- are pains in a side, in a stomach and even in a breastbone;

- it is heartburn, belch, swelling;

- it is disorder of chair or vomiting;

- it is a loss of weight or rapid satiation at eating;

- it is appearance of mucus or blood in a chair;

- are locks etc.


Which are duties of medical sister? Every train nurse must be able (except the duties laid on her on one or another medical and preventive separation) to provide transportation and carrying from place to place of seriously sick and injured and in necessary cases to organize their transporting. To that end to the work she brings over a junior nurse.

Train nurse also must be able to execute elementary laboratory researches (especially working on a mud flow). She must always observe a professional secret.

In handling patients train (equal as and doctor, and junior nurse) nurse must possess large patience and time, showing high humanism. All of it assists more speedy recovery of patients, injured.

In itself certainly, train nurse is under an obligation exactly to execute all setting of doctor. At delivery of medications she watches after that this medicine was accepted in her presence.

Train nurse collects for laboratory research urine, sputum, excrement, takes strokes from a pharynx and nose of and other, passes them in a laboratory, watches after the timely receipt of needments from a laboratory. Train nurse bears responsibility for providing of the set internal order and sanitary mode on the area of work entrusted to her. Train nurse also carries out work with registration documentation.

Helminthology methods of researches. The methods of diagnostics of helminthisms are divided into the lines based on the direct exposure of helmints or their fragments, and also larvae and eggs of helmints (methods of research of (фекалий), urine, bile and duodenal content, sputum, blood and fabrics and indirect, by means of that expose secondary changes arising up in the organism of man as a result of vital functions of helmints(researches of morphological composition of blood, immunological methods of diagnostics of helminthisms, roentgenologic researches etc.).

Large educations suspicious on the fragments of helmints examine under magnifying glass between two subject glasses. If on clinical testimonies suppose finding out shallow helmints or heads of cistodi after treatment, then suspicious particles examine under magnifying glass in the drop of glycerin, and in case of necessity and under a microscope.

Helminthological research methods. Methods of diagnosis of helminth infections are divided into straight, based on the direct detection of worms themselves or their fragments, as well as larvae and eggs of helminths (research methods of feces, urine, bile and duodenal contents, sputum, blood, and tissue material obtained by scraping from the perianal region and subungual spaces), and indirect, by which detect secondary changes that occur in the human body as a result of vital activity of worms (the study of the morphological structure of blood, immunological diagnostic methods helminth infections, X-ray examinations, etc.). Of the direct methods are the most common scatological, which are divided into macro-and mikrogelmintoskopicheskie. In some cases, the use of special techniques.

Makrogelmitoskopicheskie research methods aimed at searching for worms or their fragments (scolex, joints, parts strobilae cestodes). They are used for the diagnosis of the helminth infections, in which the eggs are excreted in the feces is not sick, or are produced in small quantities and not always (for example, enterobioze find pinworms in feces, with taeniasis - segments).

For the detection of pinworms in feces or segments of cestodes spend viewing the feces with the naked eye. For the differential diagnosis of taeniasis recommended viewing feces separate compacting water in small portions in black photographic pans or in Petri dishes on a dark background. Large Education, suspicious pieces of worms, examined under the microscope between the two slides. If clinically indicated involve detection of small heads helminth or cestodes after treatment, the treated particles suspicious under a microscope in a drop of glycerol and, if necessary, under a microscope.

Quantitative methods are used in the diagnosis of helminth infections need to set the intensity of infestation. These methods allow you to judge the effectiveness of deworming, evaluate effects of various anthelmintic drugs, and may also serve as a control carried out mass treatment and preventive measures.

Working with feces in the laboratory. To investigate the charge feces from different places in portions in a glass or plastic utensils, cups paraffin, which is pasted a label with the name, first name and patronymic , age and address of the subject. Number of feces should not be less than 1/4 cup , because small amounts of faeces dry quickly and the eggs they are deformed . Furthermore, it may be necessary to re­examination by other means. Feces are to be delivered to a research laboratory for 1 day after a bowel movement, and when tested on strongyloidosis immediately after defecation. In the case of prolonged storage of material necessary for transportation is used as a preservative liquid Barbagallo (in 1,000 ml of water was dissolved 8.5 g of salt and 30 ml formalin) or liquid Shurenkova (1900 ml of 0.2 % aqueous solution of sodium nitrate, 250 ml of strong Lugol's solution, 300 ml of undiluted formalin, 25 ml of glycerol), detergent solution or 1 % solution or Lotus Extras 1.5 % solution (in a weight ratio feces and detergent solution 1:5). After analysis dishes disinfect: boiled or incubated for 5 hours in a 5% phenol solution, lysol, 2% solution cresol. When recording the results of analyzes indicate the name of worms for the modern nomenclature (Latin name)

Metolit immunological diagnostics are most effective when helminths, which live pathogens directly in tissues or in the early phase of its development, migrate through the bloodstream and internal organs of the host. Use the allergic reaction (skin and intradermal test) and immunological reaction interfacial precipitin test (PSC) for the diagnosis of trichinosis, latex agglutination (RLA) with diagnosticum long shelf life for the diagnosis of echinococcosis and alveococcosis, indirect hemagglutination (IHA) for the diagnosis of echinococcosis, cysticercosis of the brain and preimatinalnoy phase of ascariasis; immunoflyuorestsiruyuschih antibodies (REEF) for the diagnosis of cysticerci and trichinosis; microprecipitation for larvae (RMPL) to diagnose nematosis (immature phase of ascariasis, hookworm, trichinosis), enzyme-linked immunosorbent reaction (IGF) for the diagnosis of echinococcosis, alveococcosis, opistorhoza, trichinosis; complement fixation (RAC) for the diagnosis of trichinosis and cysticercosis. Apply the reaction of immuno- electrophoresis (RIEF) and double diffusion in gel (RDDG).

The elements of the environment, subject to санитарногельминтологическому study are: water open water - rivers, ponds, reservoirs, wells, bathing beaches, swimming pools, standpipes; soil in the yards, vegetable gardens, berry fields, gardens, children's institutions - in playgrounds, in sandboxes, outdoor toilets around, the markets - under the tables in the fruit and vegetable rows, and so on; vegetables, berries, greens-in individual estates in gardens, orchards, berry fields, the markets, dining, shopping, nutrition units in institutions, hospitals, health centers, etc., in the vegetable stores; sewage sludge from septic tanks, biological lakes, ponds, sludge drying beds, etc.; dust and washings with household items, hand-to-dining, shopping, child care, food facilities, and microfoci enterobiosis hymenolepiasis.

Contamination of soil and water from open reservoirs occurs when hit by uncleared sewage (faeces), wastewater treatment plants and sludge, household garbage. In addition, a certain role to play snowmelt, rain and flood waters that endure helminth eggs from areas microfoci, livestock farms and complexes.

In this regard, the intensity of the contamination of soil and water from open reservoirs yaytsamn-worming is largely dependent on the health improvement of towns and villages, the level of health and consumer awareness of the population, the state of its helminth infestation, the effectiveness of cleaning methods and disposal of sewage, garbage, sewage and their precipitation.

Thus, sanitary helminthological study of soil, water, fruit and other elements of the environment allows to evaluate the improvement of health centers and microfoci helminth infections, evaluate the quality of compliance with sanitary and antiepidemic regime in supervised facilities (nurseries, hospitals, food and other enterprises, sewage treatment etc.) in the implementation of preventive and current sanitary inspection, qualified assessment of the effectiveness of health and wellness activities.


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