Programming is the process of preparing a set of coded in­structions which enables the computer to solve specific prob­lems or to perform specific functions. Theiessence of computer programmingjis the encoding of the program for the computer by means of algorythms. The thing is that any problem is ex­pressed in mathematical terms, it contains formulae, equations and calculations^ But the computer cannot manipulate formu­lae, equations and calculations. Any problem must be specially processed for the computer to understand it, that is — coded or programmed.

The phase in which the system's computer programs are written is called the development phase. The programs are lists of instructions that will be followed by the control unit of the central processing unit (CPU). The instructions of the program must be complete and in the appropriate sequence, or else the wrong answers will result. To guard against these errors in logic and to document the program's logical approach, logic plans should be developed.

There are two common techniques for planning the logic of a program. The first technique is flowcharting. A flowchart is a plan in the form of a graphic or pictorial representation that uses predefined symbols to illustrate the program logic. It is, there­fore, a "picture" of the logical steps to be performed by the computer. Each of the predefined symbol shapes stands for a general operation. The symbol shape communicates the nature of the general operation, and the specifics are written within the symbol. A plastic or metal guide called a template is used to make drawing the symbols easier.

The second technique for planning program logic is called pseudocode. Pseudocode is an imitation of actual program in­structions. It allows a program-like structure without the bur­den of programming rules to follow. Pseudocode is less time-consuming for the professional programmer than is flowcharting. It also emphasizes a top-down approach to program structure.

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 148

Pseudocode has three basic structures: sequence, decision, and looping logic. With these three structures, any required logic can be expressed.

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