Classification of Verbs
Classes of verbs fall into a number of subclasses distinguished by different semantic and lexica-grammatical features. On the upper level of division two unequal sets are identified: the set of verbs of full nominative value (notional verbs) and the set of verbs of partial nominative value (semi-notional and functional verbs). The first is derivationally open and includes the bulk of lexicon, the second is closed, includes limited subsets of verbs characterized by individual relation properties.
The finite verbs are characterized by the categories of:
- Tense: the Present, the Past, the Future;
- Aspect: the Indefinite (the common, the non-cont.) Aspect - the Continuous (the Progressive) Form;
- Time correlation (retrospective coordination): non-perfect - perfect;
- Voice: active - passive;
- Mood: Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive,
- The Person;
- The Number.
Semi-notional and functional verbs serve as markers of predication in the proper sense, since they show the connection between the nominative content of the sentence and reality in a strictly specialized way. These predicators include auxiliary verbs, modal verbs, semi-notional verb introducer verbs and link verbs.
Auxiliary verbs constitute grammatical elements of the categorical forms of the verb.
Modal verbs are used with the infinitive as predicative markers expressing relational meanings of the subject attitude type. They are defective in forms and are supply supplemented by stative group.
Semi-notional verb introducer verbs. Here we find sets of discriminatory relational semantics (seem, happen), of subject action relational semantics (try, fail, manage), of phrasal semantics (begin, continue).
Link verbs introduce the nominal part of the predicate within a commonly expressed by a noun, an adjective, or a similar semantico-grammatieal character. They are not devoid of meaningful content.
The common specifying link-verbs fall into two main groups: the one expresses perception (feel, smell, taste) and the other non-perceptional connection (get, grow, remain, keep).
But like any notional part of speech the verb can be classed in many different ways. Thus there are other classifications:
- the morphological;
- the semantic;
- the functional;
The morphological classification of verbs is based on how the verb forms its main forms: (Past Ind, PII); accordingly the verbs are subdivided into regular (standard) and irregular (non-standard).
The are several groups of non-standard verbs:
- . verbs with vowel gradation (sit - sat -sat);
- verbs with vowel gradation and the non-standard suffix -(e)n in PII (write - wrote — written);
- verbs with vowel gradation and the non-standard -t, -d (teach - taught - taught, tell - told - told)',
- verbs with consonant gradation (send - sent - sent)',
- verbs with two sets of forms (learn - learnt/learned);
- verbs with homonymous forms (put - put -put);
- verbs with suppletive forms (to be, to go);
- defective verbs: modal verbs - they are called defective because they have no infinitive and participles
The semantic classification is based on the general semantic meaning of the verb. Here we have two large groups:
- subject - object verbs;
- terminative - non-terminative (durative) verbs.
The classification into subject - object verbs is to some extent similar to the classification into transitive/intransitive verbs. Traditionally a transitive verb is a verb which takes a direct object without a preposition, and as to the intransitive verbs they are all the others. A subject verb does not take any object, an object verb can take any object (direct, prepositional, indirect). As far as the interrelation between the subject and object verbs there is no strict line of demarcation, which means that the distribution of the verb may be considered as one of the word-building means: I. He was running along the street and 2. She ran a restaurant.
Three instances are advisable here:
- an object verb proper (to smoke a cigarette)
- an object verb used absolutely but with an object understood (he smokes much)
- subject verb proper (all the chimneys were smoking)
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