The structure of social production. The phases of social reproduction: production, distribution, exchange and consumption.
1) Production as a source of life.Food, clothes, footwear dwellings etc. are essential for human life. To adapt natural resources to the satisfaction of needs people must work. That’s why, the basis of life and society development is production.
2) Production is a process of human influence on objects (substances) with the use of natural forces and their adaptation to satisfaction of definite needs.
3) Relations of production.Any production is of social character, as people never work aloof from each other, they are connected in production activity. It means, that people get in contact not only with nature but with others whilst production. These relationships are called economic ones.
Social reproduction represents repetition of manufacture on the scale of all society.
Public reproduction - reproduction in scale of the society, meaning continuous renewal of the macroeconomic phenomena and processes with their quantitative and qualitative parameters and expressing to those of change in social and economic system.
In industrial and postindustrial systems the expanded reproduction is objectively necessary. It consists that manufacture repeats in all the increasing sizes.
Source of the expanded reproduction is the part of the created pure product. The essence of public reproduction is expressed by the accumulation law. Last is caused by the basic economic law and dominating relations of the property on means of production.
The accumulation law specifies on causally - investigatory communications between accumulation and consumption processes, namely: the part of a pure product as a part of an annual product is used for manufacture expansion, i.e. collects, that during each given moment reduces consumption, providing in the future higher level both of manufactures, and consumption.
The common product (СP) grows out of public reproduction and a condition of the further development of economy, final consumption and perfection of the person.
It represents all set of the blessings and the services made in a society for the certain period of time (usually for a year). It name also an annual product. The cumulative public product is necessary for distinguishing from a total public product. Last is one of many measures of volume of a cumulative product.
Concerning assignment and an exchange of a cumulative public product there are certain relations of production which cause it socially - the economic form. The cumulative product represents not simply set of the blessings and services, in it certain relations of manufacturers and consumers also are reflected.
Modern relations of the property are characterized by processes occurring in a society technical and economic and socially - economic nationalization of manufacture and means of production. These processes are reflected in forms of an exchange by activity, causing synthesis of a cost and systematic exchange.
The cumulative public product in economic sense not is the goods; anyway not only the goods as its increasing part is planned, defined in direct expenses of work, arrive in consumption not on the basis of the cost law, and through the regularity law.
It is possible to assert, that the cumulative public product under the form is the socially-mixed product. The product form defines its structure.
Simple reproduction is characterized by an invariance of volumes of manufacture of material benefits and services, a labor, and also the maintenance of social and economic attitudes.
The expanded reproduction is shown in economic growth, in an increasing quantity of a labor and development of its qualitative characteristics (qualification), perfection and consolidation of the most effective social and economic attitudes, in improvement of environment the person. It is process of manufacture in constantly increasing scales.
From the point of view of phase’s development the cycle of reproduction consisting of four phases is allocated: actually production, distribution, an exchange and consumption.
Production creates a concrete natural product: production assets and consumer goods. These are machines, both bread, and computers, and fabrics. In general, owing to what the person lives and develops.
Distribution - an intermediate phase or a stage in movement of a public product from production in consumption on which the share of each participant of a social production in in common made product is defined. Distribution is carried out according to attitudes of the property dominating over the given concrete country and an economic system.
The exchange is a phase in movement of a public product from production in consumption on which specialized manufacturers exchange products made by them, money incomes on other products and the services necessary for satisfaction of their needs. The exchange follows distribution as public reproduction is carried out on the basis of a division of labour and specialization. The exchange begins unique by to give results of the work in one form for products necessary for the person in other form. In a phase of an exchange the product of work turns to the goods.
Consumption - a final phase in movement of the public product, consisting in use of the created subjects for satisfaction of public needs.
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