THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

1- Lecture. Theme: Geographical Survey (territory and structure). Population..

Plan:1. Geographical position (territory, physical structure and relief). Population.

2. Composition of the country ( England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland).

3.Climate and weather.

4. Inland waters (the largest rivers, lakes). Largest ports. Vegetation.

5.Mineral resources and their deposits.

6 The place of United Kingdom in the world economy.

General characteristics of British Industry. Main economic regions of the UK.

 

 

The aim of the lecture:To get acquainted with the geographical position, climate and weather;2 The largest rivers, lakes and mountains; vegetation. population; Main economic regions of the UK; Mineral resources and their deposits; General characteristics of British Industry; Largest ports; The place of the United Kingdom in the world economy.

 

The content of the lecture:

GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION. TERRITORY AND STRUCTURE. RELIEF. POPULATION.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles-a large group of islands lying off the north-western coast of Europe and separated from the continent by the English Channel (or La Manche) and Strait of Dover (or Pas de Calais) in the south and the North Sea in the east. The British Isles consist of two large islands – Great Britain and Ireland –separated by the Irish Sea, and a lot of small islands, the main of which are the Isle of Wight in the English Channel, Anglesea and the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea, the Hebrides – a group of islands off the north-western coast of Scotland, and two groups of islands lying to the north of Scotland: the Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the official name of the state which is sometimes referred to as Great Britain or Britain (after its major historic part) or the British Isles.

The UK is an Island state: it is composed of about 5,500 islands, large and small. the two main islands are Great Britain (in which are England, Wales and Scotland) to the east and Ireland (in which are Northern Ireland and the Independent Irish Republic) to the west. They are separated by the Irish Sea.

The general slope of the land is from north-west to south-east. The mountains cover the greater part of the northern, western and middle Great Britain. They can be divided into the following groups:

a) The Highlands of Scotland occupy most of the land to the north-west of a line drawn from Glasgow to Aberdeen. Two parts of the Highlands-the North-western Highlands and the Grampians-are separated by a narrow valley, through which runs the Caledonian Canal. At the south-western end of the Highlands rises Ben Nevis, 1343m, the highest mountain of the British Isles.

b) The Central Plain of Scotland separates the Highlands from the Southern Uplands of Scotland. The Southern Uplands and the Pennines, which stretch in the north-south direction across the northern and middle parts of England, from a practically continuous group.

c) Nearly the whole of Wales is occupied by the Cumbrians. The highest peak of the Cumbrians is Snowdon, 1085m.

The south-eastern part of England is lowland, interrupted in places by low chalk ridges.

The UK is one of the world’s smaller countries (it is twice smaller than France or Spain), with an area of some 244,100 (244,088) square kilometers. English is not the only language which people use in the UK. English is the official language. But some people speak Gaelic in western Scotland, Welsh – in parts of northern and central Wales.

The flag of the UK, known as the Union Jack, is made up of three crosses. the upright red cross is the cross of St. George, the patron saint of England. The white diagonal cross is the cross of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland. The red diagonal cross is the cross of St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland.








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