From the History of Russian Automobile Engineering

The automobile industry in our country has been developed since 1916. Before that time Russia had no automobile industry at all, tech­nical schools had no departments to train specialists in automobile engineering.

But in the history of the automobile such names as Shamshurenkov, Blinov, Mamin and other Russian experts in mechanics must be re­membered.

The first automobile built by Shamshurenkov, a Russian inventor, was put into motion by the pedalling of the driver himself.

Blinov designed and constructed tractor driven by steam engine. Mamin was one of the pioneers in Russian internal combustion en­gines.

Today Russian automobiles are engineered and built in such a manner that they are able to withstand heavy loads for long periods of operation.

The modern automobile is much more than a means of riding from one place to another. The passenger's safety and comfort must be con­sidered as much as the car's reliable performance and ability to travel on the highways.

The modern automobile must have a steel body and a steel roof and this roof must be insulated against the summer's heat and winter's (old. Ventilation is also of great importance. The comfort and conven­ience of the driver must be taken into consideration too. The automo­bile must have a heater with special defrosting devices which insure clear vision to the driver.

The automobile must have great power for riding, have depend­able clutch and brakes, have good riding qualities, good lights, depend­able starting and ignition systems, low fuel consumption, as well as long service life.

Benz, Karl (1844 — 1929) was a German inventor of the automobile, who devoted his life to making a horseless vehicle. When Benz's three-wheeled engine-driven machine (the first "car") appeared on I lie streets in 1885, people couldn't believe that it moved without the aid of horses. It was a great triumph to him because Benz built a new engine that was lighter and more powerful than any other. He put it onto a chassis and got power from the engine to the wheels. Benz's first car was a great achievement for him. Everything — the engine, fuel transmission, controls — had been developed and designed by him. The wheels were driven by means of a chain, and there were two speeds.

In his early days the speed limits were 12 kilometers an hour out­side the city, six — inside. Benz realized that he would never be able to improve his cars if this rule were not changed. He thought up a plan. He invited the Minister to ride in his car and agreed with a milkman that the latter would wait with his horse for them on a certain place. When Benz, with the Minister in his car, passed the milkman, the lat­ter started off, passed the car at a good speed and laughed at them. The plan worked perfectly. The Minister ordered to go faster. But Benz re­ferred to speed limit. "Never mind", said the Minister. Thus Benz won the day.

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