I. Quick check

1. How is the magnification varied in:

a) a light microscope

b) an electron microscope?

2. Why is the resolving power of an electron microscope so much better than of a light microscope?

3. What is the approximate size of the smallest structure that can be observed with a light microscope?


II. Fill in the missing words:

Term (verb) Noun Adjective
magnify ....... .......
multiply ....... .......
reflect ....... .......
absorb ....... .......
prevent ....... .......

III. Use monolingual English dictionary and write down what could the words given below mean:

microscope, to refract, magnification, sample, ray.


IV. Match these words with their definitions:

1. beam A. a piece of curved glass which makes things look bigger or smaller
2. toinvent B. the power of a microscope to give a clear picture of things, or a measure of this
3. eyepiece C. to change the position of the lens on a microscope so that you can see something clearly
4. lens D. to make a substance spread completely through something
5. resolution E. a shining line of light from the sun, a lamp
6. to focus F. a picture of a subject in a mirror or in the lens of a camera
7. specimen G. easily noticed
8. to impregnate H. to make, design, or produce something new for the first time
9. image I. made up of two or more parts or substances
10. apparent J. a small amount or piece of something that is taken from a plant or animal, so that can be tested or examined
11. compound K. the glass piece that you look through in a microscope

V. Find English equivalents to the following word combinations:

Russian term English equivalent
1. научное использование микроскопов  
2. электронный микроскоп  
3. стеклянные линзы  
4. окуляр  
5. видимый размер объекта  
6. зависеть от ч.-л.  
7. длина волны света  
8. без потери четкости  
9. сканирующий электронный микроскоп  
10. внутренняя структура клетки  
11. легко проходить через ч.-л.  
12. трехмерное изображение  
13. поверхность образца  

VI. Give Russian equivalents to the following English terms:

English term Russian equivalent
a magnified image of sth.  
a compound light microscope  
to pass through  
to refract (bend) the light  
structures lying close together  
the resolving power  
to be limited by sth.  
a beam of light  
thetransmission electron microscope  
to focus an image  
to produce clear images  
complicated and time-consuming  
dead specimens  
pass readily through the lightly stained parts  
to be impregnated with sth.  

VII. Find synonyms among the pool of words:

Pool of words Synonyms
1)1. multiply /2. sample /3.increase /4. specimen  
2)1. image / 2. visible / 3. apparent / 4. picture  
3)1.beam/2.refract/3.examine/4.bend/5.explore/6. ray  
4)1.organism/2.compound/3.living thing/4. complex  

VIII. Answer the following questions. Use all information given before:

1. What are microscopes used for?

2. What types of microscopes are most commonly used today?

3. What is a compound light microscope?

4. What does the magnificationof an instrument depend on?

5. How do electron microscopes differ from compound light microscopes?

6. What are the main types of electron microscopes?

7. What is the difference between thetransmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope?


IX. Match the sentence halves. Make complete centences:

1. A microscope is used A. a light microscope or optical microscope.
2. Since the 18th century many new types have been invented, of which the most commonly used today are B. they have not completely replaced light microscopes.
3. The compound light microscope is also called C. in the apparent size of the object.
4. The compound light microscope is also called D. thetransmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope.
5. The magnificationof an instrument is the increase E. the compound light microscope and the electron microscope.
6. Light microscopes can magnify objects up to F. a beam of light.
7. Electron microscopes use a beam of electrons instead of G. to produce a magnified image of an object or specimen.
8. There are two main types of electron microscopes: H. a light microscope or optical microscope.
9. Although electron microscopes have revolutionized cell biology, I. about 1500 times without losing clarity.

X. Read and translate the short text without any dictionary:

Fact of life:

A new microscope, called a scanning tunneling microscope, was invented in 1980. It measures surface features by moving a sharp probe over the object’s surface. It can achieve magnifications of 100 million, allowing scientists to view atoms on the surface of a solid. This type of microscope is likely to have a major impact on biology. Recently, it has been used to view DNA directly.

XI. Food for thought:

Suggest which unit should be used when calculating the diameter of the DNA molecule. Why might there be a discrepancy between the actual diameter and that estimated from the scanning tunneling micrograph?


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