General problems of foreign language teaching (continued)

 

Principle is a guide to action. Methods of FLT are based on the following principles.

1) Communicative approach. The pupils should be involved in oral and written communication throughout the whole course of language teaching.

2) Differential approach. Each language activity requires special attention on the part of the teacher.

3) Integrated approach. Pupils don’t assimilate phonetics, grammar, vocabulary as discreet components of the language, but they grasp them in sentence patterns, pattern – dialogues, related to certain situations and in this way pronunciation grammar and lexical habits are developed. Four language skills are interdependent parts of a language experience.

4) Oral approach. Pupils should be taught listening and speaking first. They assimilate the material orally for oral communication. Reading and writing are developed on the material assimilated orally. This principle is realized in all text- books, teaching begins with an oral introductory course which lasts the first term.

5) Accessibility. The material should be arranged in a most suitable way for teaching purposes ( For ex. in the structural functional approach the material is arranged in structures , it makes the language learning easier for pupils This approach is used in the textbook compiled by Dixon and Starkov).

6) Durability. The pupils should keep in memory linguistic and language material he learns. He must be able to use units of language and sentence-patterns whenever he needs them for oral and written communication. The durability is ensured by vivid presentation of the material, by constant revision or drill, by the use of the material for communicative needs, by systematic control, by constant supervision of pupils’ habits and skills on the part of the teacher.

7) Conscious approach. Pupils should understand both the form and the content of the material they are to learn. They should know how they should treat the material while performing the exercises.

8) Taking into account the learner’s native language.

We should use the mother tongue as the means of teaching whenever it helps pupils in acquiring knowledge necessary for developing habits and skills. The mother tongue and the foreign language are closely connected and influence each other. The pupils can transfer language skills acquired in the native language to those in the target language ( ex. cases of language interference).

9) Activity. The pupils should be active participants in the process of teaching.The main sources of activity are: motivation, desire, and interest. The problem arises how to enlarge the real time available to teach pupils during the class period to make them active participants of the lesson. There are some ways to solve the problem: dialogic approach to teaching, use of interactive methods, new ways and techniques in teaching language, use of authentic audio-video materials.

10) Visualization. It is especially organized demonstration of linguistic material and language behavior characteristic of the target language with the purpose of helping the pupil in understanding, assimilating and utilizing this in connection with the tasks set. Visualization implies an extensive use of audio-visual aids and materials.

11) Individualization. It is achieved through individual cards, own program material, special selection of exercises for each group of pupils. The use of additional material arranging pupils’ communication in the foreign language so that each pupil can do his best as the participant of the work done in the class-room.

2. By teaching aids we mean various devices which can help the teacher in presenting linguistic material and in fixing it in their memory, in testing pupils ‘knowledge of words phrases, grammar items habits and skills ,in using them. They may be grouped into non-mechanicals (blackboard, flannel board, magnet board) and mechanical (Over-Head Projector or OHP, cassette-recorder, radio, computer and VCR).

Computer replaces mostly all teaching aids because when using the computer you can read the text , write anything ,listen to the CD, do various exercises, use Internet .The students can work independently at various tasks and give immediate feed-back. C.A.T-Computer Assisted Instruction. This term describes computer programs designed for teaching. C.A.L.L- Computer Assisted Language Learning. This term is used for different forms of use of the computers.

Video activities can be divided into 3 stages: 1) previewing activities – the pupils focus on vocabulary grammar that will appear on the tape, they predict what will happen from some given information or pictures; they study a work-sheet they will use when watching the tape.2) while- viewing activities, 3) follow – up. It includes study of the new language, discussion, interpretation, personalization, role-playing, creative writing and many other activities.

III. By teaching materials we mean the materials the teacher can use to help pupils learn a language through visual or audio perception. The teaching materials are a course books, teacher’s book, manuals, selected reading dictionaries, programmed materials, films, songs. Requirements for the course book:it should provide pupils with the knowledge of the language sufficient for developing language skills; it must include the fundamentals of the target language; it must ensure student’s activity in speaking, reading ,listening and writing; it must extend students educational horizon; it should have enough illustrations , it must arise students interest and curiosity. In the end of each unit it must supply students with consolidation of their newly learnt language knowledge, it must have enough authentic materials.

Visual materials – objects, flash cards (card with a letter, sound symbol or a word used for quick showing), sentence cards, wall-chats, pictures, illustration, photos, albums, maps, plans, slides, clips, film strips.

The qualities teaching materials should possess.

1) Authenticity

2) Clarity

3) Practicality (practical in use, economic of course and time, easy to store immediately, accessible)

4) Appropriateness

5) Suitability to the age, interests and abilities of pupils

Using songs: the teacher uses songs to present and practice a topic, a language point, lexics, to focus on learner’s areas in an indirect way, to encourage listening, to stimulate discussion of attitudes and feelings, to encourage creativity and use of imagination, to provide a relaxed classroom atmosphere, to bring variety and fun to teaching and learning.

 








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