Continuous/Progressive

  Present Past Future
Time expressions Now (сейчас), just/right now(именно сейчас), at the moment(в данный момент), at present(в настоящее время) When(когда), while (в то время как), as(когда, в то время как), all day/ night/ morning(весь день/всю ночь/все утро), yesterday at 5/from 2 till 5(вчера в 5/с 2 до5) Tomorrow at this time (завтра в это время), tonight (сегодня вечером), next week/month (на следующей неделе/ месяце), in two/three days(через два/три дня), the day after tomorrow (послезавтра), soon (скоро).
Affirmative am/is/are+V-ing They are playing really well. (Они играют очень хорошо) They’re playing really well. was/were+V-ing They were playing all morning. (Они играли все утро.) Will be +V-ing They will be playing tomorrow at this time. (Они будут играть завтра в это время) They’ll be playing tomorrow at this time.
Negative am/is/are+not+V-ing They are not playing really well. (Они играют не очень хорошо). They aren’t playing really well Was/were+not+V-ing They were not playing all morning. (Они не играли все утро) They weren’t playing all morning. Will+not+be+V-ing They will not be playing tomorrow at this time. (Они не будут играть завтра в это время) They won’t be playing tomorrow at this time.
Interrogative   Am/Is/Are+S+V-ing Are they playing really well? (Они играют очень хорошо?)– Yes, they are/No, they are not. How are they playing? (Как они играют?) They are playing really well. Was/were+S+V-ing Were they playing all morning? (Они играли все утро?) – Yes, they were/No, they weren’t. How long were they playing? (Как долго они играли?) They were playing all morning.   Will-S+be+V-ing Will they be playing tomorrow at this time?(они будут играть завтра в это время?)- Yes, they will/No, they won’t. What will they be doing tomorrow at this time? (Что они будут делать завтра в это время?)- They will be playing tomorrow at this time.
Stative verbs are not usually used in the continuous form See, hear, forgive, care, like, mind, want, know, understand, believe, remember, own, posses, belong, have got, think(expressing an opinion), enjoy( synonym of like), see (synonym of understand)

 

London.

London is the capital of the United Kingdom and the constituent country of England, and is the largest city in the European Union. It is the world’s seventh biggest city and it is seven times larger than any other city in the country. London was not built as a city in the same way as Paris or New-York. The etymology of London remains a mystery. London's history goes back to its founding by the Romans. It began life in the 1st century A.D. as a Roman fortification. The first major settlement was founded by the Romans in 43 A.D. and was called Londinium. This Londinium lasted for just seventeen years.

London survived different periods and epochs such as the English Renaissance, the Industrial Revolution, and the Gothic Revival in architecture. Each of them left a sign on London’s face and produced this or that change. In 1665 there was a Great Plaque in London, so many people left the city and escaped to the villages in the surrounding countryside. The Great Fire of 1666 ended the plaque but it also destroyed much of the city. After the disaster London was completely rebuilt and a great amount of people returned to the city but there were never again so many Londoners living in the city center.

Traditionally London is divided into four parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End.

The city's core, the ancient City of London, still retains its limited mediaeval boundaries. The City of London is the world's greatest financial centre alongside New York City and Tokyo and one of the most important cultural centers. London's influence in politics, education, entertainment, media, fashion and the arts contributes to its preeminent position. The City of London is the headquarters of more than half of the UK's top 100 listed companies including the Bank of England and the Stock Exchange. There are a lot of tourists’ attractions within the City. Among them St. Paul’s Cathedral, the greatest of English churches and the Tower of London.

St Paul's Cathedral is the Anglican cathedral and the seat of the Bishop of London. The present building dates from the 17th century. Sir Christopher Wren was an architect of the masterpiece. The cathedral sits on the highest point of the City of London, which originated as a Roman trading post situated on the River Thames. The cathedral is one of London's most visited sights.

Another place of interest is the Tower of London. It was built in 1066 by William the Conqueror and since than has been playing an important role in historical and governmental events of the United Kingdom.

Westminster is the governmental part of London. It has many historical places and the brightest of them is the Westminster Abbey. The official name of the Westminster Abbey is the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster. It is a large, mainly Gothic church in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English, later British and later still (and currently) monarchs of the Commonwealth Realms. It briefly held the status of a cathedral from 1546–1556, and is a Royal Peculiar. It is also famous for its Poet’s Corner, place where a lot of outstanding poets, writers, politicians are buried.

Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Royal family. It is famous for the ceremony of the Royal Guard change. It attracts thousands of tourists.

London currently has a wide range of peoples, cultures, and religions, and more than 300 languages are spoken within the city. The official population of the city is more than 8 mln. within the boundaries of Greater London making it the most populous municipality in the European Union.

The East End used to be a purely working district where working-class families lived. We still can find a great number of factories, workshops and docks there. The East End is in many ways the "real" London. Those who live in the East End are often called Cockneys, i. e. true Londoners. They have got their own peculiar dialect and accent. The Thames is a natural boundary between the West End and the East End of London.

The West End it is not far from the City and is a part of Westminster. Life never stops in the streets and squares here. The West End is a symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, the most expensive restaurants, clubs, theatres, cinemas, casinos, shops and supermarkets are located here. It is also full of museums and art galleries.








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