Грамматика. Для успешного выполнения заданий по грамматике необходимо проработать формы и функции герундия, формы и функции причастия

Для успешного выполнения заданий по грамматике необходимо проработать формы и функции герундия, формы и функции причастия, независимый причастный оборот. Упражнения на словообразование включают суффиксы –able, -ly, -ance, -ic, -ion, -ing, -al, -or, -ation.

I. Используя суффиксы –ion, -ance, -ful, -ly, -al,-able, ic, -ing образуйте от данных ниже основ слова. Определите часть речи и переведите.

1. move 5. practice
2. wide 6. process
3. electron 7. theoretical
4. appear 8. calculate

II.Закончите предложения, употребив существительные, образованные от следующих глаголов. to invent, to calculate, to appear, to compute и переведите их.

9. American …, Herman Hollerith created a calculating machine in1889.

10. The first automatic … was built by Howard Alken of Harvard.

11. The … of a small transistor in 1948 made today’s computers possible.

12. The abacus allowed people to make … using a system of sliding beads arranged on a rack.

III. Выберите предложение, в котором инфинитив выполняет роль определения и переведите его.

13. The data were collected during the experiments.

14. The experiments to be carried out in this laboratory will be very important.

15. Today there are computers to be carried in a pocket or about size of a typewriter.

IV. Какое из данных предложений можно перевести с союзом чтобы.

16. To use a computer in the work was our engineer’s decision.

17. To use a computer in the work we must study it well.

18. To use this device in the experiment we are to have special knowledge of it.

V. Выберите предложения, содержащие субъектный инфинитивный оборот (сложное подлежащее – Complex Subject) и переведите их.

19. This computing machine could perform 4 basic mathematic functions.

20. B. Pascal is known to be the first invention of the mechanical computer.

21. This computer happens to be too slow for our experiment.

VI. Выберите и переведите предложения, содержащие объектный инфинитивный оборот (сложное дополнение – Complex Object).

22. They consider this device to have been tested in our laboratory.

23. In 17th century it was possible for B. Pascal to invent a mechanical computer.

24. We watched the floppy disk begin to operate.

Понимание прочитанного

Прочитайте текст, вдумайтесь в его содержание, постарайтесь понять его, чтобы выполнить задания после текста.

1. Nothing changes modern life better than computer. Today computers do much more than simply compute. To fully understand and appreciate the impact computers have on our lives, it is important to understand their evolution.
2. The abacus, which emerged about 5000 years ago in Asia Minor and is fit still in use today may be considered the first computer. This device allows users to make computations using a system of sliding beads arranged on a rack. Early merchants used abacus to make trading transactions. But with the appearance of paper and pencil in Europe the abacus lost its importance.
3. It took nearly 12 centuries for the next significant advance in computing device to emerge. In 1642 Blaise Pascal, the 18-year-old son of a French ticket collector invented a numerical wheel calculator, which used eight movable dials to add sums up to eight figures long. In 1694 a German mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz improved Pascal’s calculator by creating a machine that could also multiply. In 1820 Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar, a French man, invented a machine that could perform 4 basic arithmetic functions. add, subtract, multiply and divide. This arithmometer was widely used until the First World War.
4. The real beginnings of computers lay with an English inventor, mathematics professor Charles Babbage, who designed “an analytical machine” that theoretically could do some of the things a modern computer does. He proposed a machine to perform differential equations. Powered by steam and as a locomotive, the machine would have a stored program and could
  perform calculations and print the results automatically. However it was never built.
5. A more practical plan came from American inventor Herman Hollerith, who patented a calculating machine in 1889. His machine was used to compute the US census data. Hollerith’s method used perforated (punch) cards to store data which he fed up into machine that compiled the results mechanically. Punch cards were used for many data operations until 1960.
6. The first generation of that can be called a real computer, not just a calculator, was the Colossus, which was used to decipher German codes World War II. It was built only for this task. The 1st general purpose computer is known as ENIAC – Electronic Numeral Integrator and Calculator, designed and built in America by J. Prosper Eckert and John W. Mauchly of the University of Pennsylvania in 1946. But it was enormous, because they used hundreds of vacuum tubes. The invention of a transistor in 1948, which does the same work as the vacuum tube, made today’s computers possible.








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