Thermal methods of waste disposal
One of the most widespread ways of liquidation of liquid and firm waste products is burning or pyrolysis. Use of pyrolysis or high-temperature roasting enables to reduce volume of waste products by 85 %.
Advantages of a method: 1) universality; 2) opportunity of processing of any waste products; 3) full automation of process; 4) opportunity of use of departing gases heat; 5) use of the rest or ash as fertilizer.
Lack: at burning of sewage of organic manufactures the departing gases clearing is necessary.
For burning of waste products furnaces of various designs are used.
Table 3.1. The characteristic of methods of chemical waste products liquidation
|Method of liquidation (storage)||Advantages||Lacks|
|Sanitary burial place||The ground can be used, if all safety measures are executed. If preliminary processing of waste products is made there is not a risk of pollution of superficial and subsoil waters. Does not demand isolating layer when waste products are neutralized.||The free ground areas are required. There is a danger of waters pollution in case of steady chemical waste products or in case of destruction of isolating layer. The method is connected to application of expensive and not always accessible isolating materials.|
|Sludge storages||Inexpensive method||Demands of the large ground areas. The ground cannot be used. A potential source of pollution of waters and air. Demands of application of expensive and not always accessible isolating materials.|
|Burning||The method is effective for neutralization of toxic compounds. Does not demand of the ground areas use.||Expensive method. Demands of additional charge of fuel. The residues demanding of storage are formed. During burning secondary polluting substances are formed.|
|Underground burial place||Does not demand of use of the ground surface.||Demands the specific geological conditions. Can be a source of uncontrollable pollution of underground waters in the future.|
|Dumping in superficial reservoirs||Inexpensive method. Does not demand of the ground use.||Potential source of pollution of reservoirs. The method is economically inexpedient, if nearby there are no reservoirs.|
|Burial place in ocean||Inexpensive method. Does not demand of the ground use.||Leads to degradation of oceans and coastal zones in case of uncontrollable dump of waste products. It is uneconomical in case of remoteness from ocean.|
Firm waste products are the waste products received as powders, a dust, ingots or the hardened mass. To them are concerned: cinders, ash, particles of a dust and soot, waste products of plastic and rubbers, the mineral metal-containing residues after enrichment of ores, the organic decaying residues.
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