Dumps and sludge storages
Dumps represent sections of ground behind city on which industrial and household waste products are uncontrollably kept. Frequently they set on fire for reduction of volume of kept waste products. This method of waste products storage is unsuitable. Now it is forbidden by legislations in many countries of the world as dumps are a serious source of pollution of the air and water environment. At storage of chemical waste products on open dumps there is an interaction of components of waste products to a moisture and oxygen of air therefore toxic and harmful compounds are formed. These compounds are extracted and absorbed by rain and superficial waters, subsequently they get in the rivers and lakes. However such dumps of industrial wastes still exist. There is the ground storage of galit waste products, phosphogypsum, cinder, etc.
Sludge storages are the specially constructed ground constructions intended for storage and settling of sludge. Sludge storages have the special drainage system for removal of sewage. Their bottom and shores are isolated by waterproof layer from clay, polymeric materials, bitumen. This method of storage of waste products also is not the decision of this problem as a whole. Sludge storages are the open constructions. There is a constant allocation of gaseous substances in an atmosphere from their surface, and in case of damage of a drainage or insulation layer - leak of the polluted sewage.
Sanitary earthen covering is applied to a burial place of firm waste products. Sanitary covering of waste products is carried out in special holes or by ground storage. The basic requirements are the compaction of waste products and daily covering of a layer of the ground. This way the suspensions of scrubber clearing of gases from SO2 and ash of power stations are liquidated.
The burial place of toxic chemical waste products is impossible without their preliminary processing. The most widespread way of processing is hardening of waste products, i.e. transformation of toxic components into insoluble compounds. For this purpose to waste products binding agents are added: cement, lime, bitumen, paraffins, organic polymers, synthetic materials. The method of encapsulation of waste products by an inert film is also used.
Waste products processing of by various stabilizing and neutralizing additives does more expensive the process of liquidation of waste products.
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