Main propositions of Concept of ecological safety of the Republic of Kazakhstan on 2004-2015 years
Bases of the state policy of Kazakhstan in the field of environmental protection are incorporated in the Concept of ecological safety, which was approved by the order of President of RК on April, 30, 1996 y. In this Concept ecological priorities of transitional period are considered. From the moment of acceptance of the given Concept in Kazakhstan there were serious changes in social development. A number of documents were developed:
«About oil» - 1995, «About bowels and using of bowels» - 1996, «About environmental protection», «About especially protected natural territories», «About ecological examination» - 1997, «About radiating safety» - 1998, «About atmospheric air protection» - 2002, Wood, Water and Ground codes - 2003.
The rate on rapproachement with the legislation of the advanced countries and introduction of the international standards was taken. 19 international conventions were signed.
The new Concept of ecological safety of the Republic of Kazakhstan on 2004-2015 years was accepted on December, 3, 2003 in view of principles Rio de Janeiro declaration (1992) and decisions of the World summit on steady development to Johannesburg (2002).
The primary goals of ecological safety:
- Reduction of anthropogenous influence, leading to changes of a climate and destruction of an ozone cloud of the Earth;
- Preservation of a biodiversity and prevention of desertification and degradation of the grounds;
- Rehabilitation of zones of ecological disaster;
- The warning of pollution of Caspian Sea shelf and others.
In the Concept global, national and local environmental problems are named.
Global environmental problems:
1) Change of a climate, being the result of "hotbed" effect;
2) Destruction of an ozone cloud;
3) Preservation of a biodiversity;
4) Desertification and degradation of the grounds.
National environmental problems:
1) Zones of ecological disaster (the Aral and Semipalatinsk regions);
2) The problems connecting with development of resources of Caspian Sea shelf;
3) An exhaustion and pollution of water resources;
4) Historical pollutions (the basic sources of pollution are ownerless chinks, pits, mines, stores of sewage, etc.);
5) Questions of transboundary character (pollutions of transboundary water objects, air and ground; development of frontier deposits of minerals; moving of dangerous technologies);
6) Influence military-space and testing ranges (There are 4 military ranges and complex «Baikonur» on territory of Kazakhstan. Falling on the ground fragments of rockets and floods of high-toxic fuel represent the real ecological threat).
The main local environmental problem is the pollution of air. Shymkent enters in ten the most polluted cities of the Republic. The basic pollution of an atmosphere is connected to emissions of enterprises of black and nonferrous metallurgy, power system, an oil-gas complex and transport. The reasons of high level of air pollution in cities are out-of-date "know-how", inefficient clearing constructions, law quality of used fuel.
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